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2018北京高考英语试题【Word真题试卷】

2018-06-09 11:41:53文/李男

2018年普通高等学校招生全国统一考试

英语(北京卷)

第一部分:知识运用(共两节,45分)

第一节单项填空(共15小题;每小题1分,共15分)

从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选中,选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项,

并在答题卡上:将该项涂黑。

例:it'ssonicetohearfromheragain__,welastmetmorethanthirtyyearsago.

A.what'smore

B.That’stosay

C.Inotherwords

D.Believeitornot

答案是D。

  1. -Hi,I'mPeter.Areyounewhere?Ihaven'tseenyouaround?

-Hello,Peter.I'mBob.Ijust__onMonday.

A.start

B.havestarted

C.started

D.hadstarted

2.__wedon'tstopclimatechange,manyanimalsandplantsintheworldwillbegone.

A.Although

B.While

C.If

D.Until

3.__alongtheoldSilkRoadisaninterestingandrewardingexperience

A.Travel

B.Traveling

C.Havingtraveled

D.Traveled

4.Susanhadquitherwell-paidjoband__asavolunteerintheneighborhood.whenIvisitedherlastyear

A.isworking

B.wasworking

C.hasworked

D.hadworked

5.Sheandherfamilybicycletowork,helpsthemkeepfit

A.which

B.who

C.as

D.that

6.DuringtheMid-AutumnFestival,familymembersoftengathertogether__ameal,admirethemoonandenjoymooncakes.

A.share

B.toshare

C.havingshared

D.shared

7.China'shigh-speedrailwaysfrom9,000to25,000kilometersinthepastfewyears.

A.aregrowing

B.havegrown

C.willgrow

D.hadgrown

8.Inanyunsafesituation,simply__thebuttonandahighly-trainedagentwillgetyouthehelpyouneed.

A.press

B.topress

C.pressing

D.pressed

9.Arescueworkerriskedhislifesavingtwotouristswho__inthemountainsfortwodays.

A.aretrapping

B.havebeentrapped

C.weretrapping

D.hadbeentrapped

10.Ordinarysoap,__correctly,candealwithbacteriaeffectively.

A.used

B.touse

C.using

D.use

11.Withouthissupport,wewouldn'tbe__wearenow.

A.how

B.when

C.where

D.why

12.Intoday'sinformationage,thelossofdata__causeseriousproblemsforacompany.

A.need

B.should

C.can

D.must

13.Theymighthavefoundabetterhotelifthey__afewmorekilometers.

A.drove

B.woulddrive

C.weretodrive

D.haddriven

14.-Goodmorning,Mr.lee'soffice.

-Goodmorning.I'dliketomakeanappointment__nextWednesdayafternoon.

A.for

B.on

C.in

D.at

15.Thisis__myfatherhastaughtme-toalwaysfacedifficultiesandhopeforthebest.

A.how

B.which

C.the

D.what

第二节完形填空(共20小题;每小题1.5分,共30分)

???阅读下面短文,掌握其大意,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最佳选项,并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

TheHomelessHero

???Formany,findinganunattendedwalletfilledwith£400incashwouldbeasource(来源)oftemptation(诱惑).Butthe?16?wouldnodoubtbegreaterifyouwerelivingonthestreetswithlittlefoodandmoney.AllofthismakestheactionsofthehomelessTomSmith17moreremarkable.

???Afterspottinga18?onthefrontseatinsideaparkedcarwithitswindowdown,hestoodguardintherainforabouttwohourswaitingforthe19toreturn.

???Afterhoursinthecoldandwet,he20?insideandpulledthewalletouthopingtofindsomeIDsohecouldcontact(联系)thedriver,onlyto?21?itcontained£400innotes,withanother£50insparechangebesideit.

???Hethentookthewallettoanearbypolicestationafter22?anotebehindtolettheownerknowitwassafe.Whenthecar’sownerJohnAndersonandhiscolleagueCarolLawrencereturnedtothecar-whichwasitselfworth£35,000—inGlasgowcitycentre,theywere??23?tofindtwopolicemenstandingnexttoit.ThepolicementoldthemwhatMr.Smithdidandthatthewalletwas?24?.

???ThepairwerelaterabletothankMr.Smithforhis?25.

???Mr.Andersonsaid:“"Icouldn’tbelievethattheguynevertookapenny.Tothinkheissleepingonthestreetstonight?26?hecouldhavestolenthemoneyandpaidforaplacetostayin.Thisguyhasnothingand?27?hedidn'ttakethewalletforhimself;hethoughtaboutothers?28?it’sunbelievable.Itjustprovesthereare?29guysoutthere.”

???Mr.smith’sact?30?muchofthepublic’sattention.HealsowonpraisefromsocialmediausersafterMr.Anderson?31?abouttheactofkindnessonFacebook.

NowMr.Andersonhassetupanonlinecampaignto??32??moneyfor

Mr.Smithandotherhomelesspeopleinthearea,whichbyyesterdayhadreceived£8,000.“Ithinkthefaiththateveryonehasshown??33??himhastouchedhim.Peoplehavebeenapproachinghiminthestreet;he'shaIjob??34??andallsorts,”Mr.Andersoncommented.

ForMr.Smith,thisisapossiblelife-changing??35??.Thestoryonceagaintellsusthatonegoodturndeservesanother.

16.

A.hope

B.aim

C.urge

D.effort

17.

A.still

B.even

C.ever

D.once

18.

A.wallet

B.bag

C.box

D.parcel

19.

A.partner

B.colleague

C.owner

D.policeman

20.

A.turned

B.hid

C.stepped

D.reached

21.

A.discover

B.collect

C.check

D.believe

22.

A.taking

B.leaving

C.reading

D.writing

23.

A.satisfied

B.excited

C.amused

D.shocked

24.

A.safe

B.missing

C.found

D.seen

25.

A.service

B.support

C.kindness

D.encouragement

26.

A.when

B.if

C.where

D.because

27.

A.rather

B.yet

C.already

D.just

28.

A.too

B.though

C.again

D.instead

29.

A.honest

B.polite

C.rich

D.generous

30.

A.gave

B.paid

C.cast

D.drew

31.

A.learned

B.posted

C.cared

D.heard

32.

A.borrow

B.raise

C.save

D.earn

33.

A.of

B.at

C.for

D.in

34.

A.details

B.changes

C.offers

D.applications

35.

A.lesson

B.adventure

C.chance

D.challenge

第二部分:阅读理解(共两节,40分)

第一节(共15小题:每小题2分,共30分)

阅读下列短文,从每题所给的A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出最仁选项,并

在答题卡上将该项涂黑。

A

MyFirstMarathon(马拉松)

Amonthbeforemyfirstmarathon,oneofmyankleswasinjuredandthismeantnotrunningfortwoweeks,leavingmeonlytwoweekstotrain.Yet,Iwasdeterminedtogoahead.

Irememberbacktomy7thyearinschool.InmyfirstP.E.class,theteacherrequiredustorunlapsandthenhitasoftball.Ididn'tdoeitherwell.HelaterinformedmethatIwas“notathletic”.

TheideathatIwas"notathletic"stuckwithmeforyears.WhenIstartedrunninginmy30s,Irealizedrunningwasabattleagainstmyself,notaboutcompetitionorwhetherornotIwasathletic.Itwasallaboutthebattleagainstmyownbodyandmind.Atestofwills!

Thenightbeforemymarathon,IdreamtthatIcouldn'tevenfindthefinishline.Iwokeupsweatingandnervous,butreadytoprovesomethingtomyself.

Shortlyaftercrossingthestartline,myshoelaces(鞋带)becameuntied.SoIstoppedtoreadjust.NotthestartIwanted!

Atmile3,Ipassedasign:“GOFORIT,RUNNERS!”

Bymile17,Ibecameoutofbreathandtheonceinjuredanklehurtbadly.Despitethepain,Istayedthecoursewalkingabitandthenrunningagain.

Bymile21,Iwasstarving!

AsIapproachedmile23,Icouldseemywifewavingasign.Sheismybiggestfan.Shenevermindedthealarmclocksoundingat4a.m.orquestionedmyexpensesonrunning.

Iwasoneofthefinalrunnerstofinish.ButIfinished!AndIgotamedal.Infact,Igotthesamemedalastheonethattheguywhocameinfirstplacehad.

Determinedtobemyself,,moveforward,freeofshameandworldlylabels(世俗标签),Icannowcallmyselfa"marathonwinner”.

36.Amonthbeforethemarathon,theauthor?.

A.waswelltrained

B.feltscared

C.madeuphismindtorun

D.Lost?hope

37.WhydidtheauthormentiontheP.E.classinhis7thyear?

A.Toacknowledgethesupportofhisteacher.

B.Toamusethereaderswithafunnystory.

C.Toshowhewasnottalentedinsports.

D.Toshareapreciousmemory.

38.Howwastheauthor'sfirstmarathon?

A.Hemadeit.

B.Hequithalfway.

C.Hegotthefirstprize.

D.Hewalkedtotheend.

39.Whatdoesthestorymainlytellus?

A.Amanoweshissuccesstohisfamilysupport.

B.Awinnerisonewithagreateffortofwill.

C.Failureisthemotherofsuccess.

D.Oneisnevertoooldtolearn.

B

FindYourAdventureattheSpaceandAviation(航空)Center

Ifyou'relookingforauniqueadventure,theSpaceandAviationCenter(SAC)istheplacetobe.TheCenteroffersprogramsdesignedtochallengeandinspirewithhands-ontasksandlotsoffun.

Morethan750,000havegraduatedfromSAC,withmanyseekingemploymentinengineering,aviation,education,medicineandawidevarietyofotherprofessions.Theycometocamp,wantingtoknowwhatitisliketobeanastronautorapilot,andtheyleavewithreal-worldapplicationsforwhatthey'restudyingintheclassroom.

?Forthetrainees,theprogramsalsoofferagreatway

toearnmeritbadges(荣誉徽章).AtSpaceCamp,traineescanearntheirSpaceExplorationbadgeastheybuildandfiremodelrockets,learnaboutspacetasksandtrysimulated(模拟)flyingtospacewiththecrewfromallovertheworld.TheAviationChallengeprogramgivestraineesthechancetoearntheirAviationbadge.Theylearntheprinciplesofflightandtesttheiroperatingskillsinthecockpit(驾驶舱)ofavarietyofflightsimulators.TraineesalsogetagoodstartontheirWildernessSurvivalbadgeastheylearnaboutwater-and

land-survivalthroughdesignedtasksandtheirsearchandrescueof“downed"pilot.

Withalltheprograms,teamworkiskeyastraineeslearntheimportanceofleadershipandbeingpartofabiggertask.

Allthisfunisavailableforages9to18.Familiescanenjoytheexperiencetogether,too,withFamilyCampprogramsforfamilieswithchildrenasyoungas7.

Stayanhourorstayaweek--thereissomethinghereforeveryone!

Formoredetails,pleasevisitusonlineatwww.oursac.com.

40.WhydopeoplecometoSAC?

A.Toexperienceadventures.

B.Tolookforjobsinaviation.

C.Togetadegreeinengineering.

D.Tolearnmoreaboutmedicine.

41.ToearnaSpaceExplorationbadge,atraineeneedsto???.

A.flytospace.

B.getanAviationbadgefirst.

C.studytheprinciplesofflight.

D.buildandfiremodelrockets.

42.Whatisthemostimportantfortrainees?

A.Leadership.

B.Teamspirit.

C.Taskplanning.

D.Survivalskills.

C

Plastic-EatingWorms

Humansproducemorethan300milliontonsofplasticeveryyear.Almosthalfofthatwindsupinlandfills(垃圾填埋场),andupto12milliontonspollutetheoceans.qSofarthereisnoeffectivewaytogetridofit,butanewstudysuggestsananswermaylieinthestomachsofsomehungryworms.

ResearchersinSpainandEnglandrecentlyfoundthatthewormsofthegreaterwaxmothcanbreakdownpolyethylene,whichaccountsfor40%ofplastics.Theteamleft100waxwormsonacommercialpolyethyleneshoppingbagfor12hours,andthewormsconsumedandbrokedownabout92milligrams,oralmost3%ofit.Toconfirmthattheworms'chewingalonewasnotresponsibleforthepolyethylenebreakdown,the

researchersmadesomewormsintopaste(糊状物)andappliedittoplasticfilms.14hourslaterthefilmshadlost13%oftheirmass--apparentlybrokendownbyenzymes(酶)fromtheworms'stomachs.TheirfindingswerepublishedinCurrentBiologyin2017.

FedericaBertocchini,co-authorofthestudy,saystheworms'abilitytobreakdowntheireveryday?food-beeswax--alsoallowsthemtobreakdownplastic"Waxisacomplexmixture,butthebasicbondinpolyethylene,thecarbon-carbonbond,isthere

aswell,"sheexplains."Thewaxwormevolvedamethodorsystemtobreakthisbond."

JenniferDebruyn,amicrobiologistattheUniversityofTennessee,whowasnotinvolvedinthestudy,saysitisnotsurprisingthatsuchwormscanbreakdownpolyethylene.Butcomparedwithpreviousstudies,shefindsthespeedofbreakingdowninthisoneexciting.Thenextstep,DeBruynsays,willbetoidentifythecauseofthebreakdown.Isitanenzymeproducedbythewormitselforbyitsgutmicrobes(肠道微生物)?

Bertocchiniagreesandhopesherteam’sfindingsmightonedayhelpemploytheenzymetobreakdownplasticsinlandfills.Butsheexpectsusingthechemicalinsomekindofindustrialprocess-notsimply"millionsofwormsthrownontopoftheplastic.”

43.Whatcanwelearnaboutthewormsinthestudy?

A.Theytakeplasticsastheireverydayfood.

B.Theyarenewlyevolvedcreatures.

C.Theycanconsumeplastics.

D.Theywindupinlandfills.

44.AccordingtoJenniferDeBruyn,thenextstepofthestudyisto?.

A.identifyothermeansofthebreakdown

B.findoutthesourceoftheenzyme

C.confirmtheresearchfindings

D.increasethebreakdownspeed

45.Itcanbeinferredfromthelastparagraphthatthechemicalmight?.

A.helptoraiseworms

B.helpmakeplasticbags

C.beusedtocleantheoceans

D.beproducedinfactoriesinfuture

46.Whatisthemainpurposeofthepassage?

A.Toexplainastudymethodonworms.

B.Tointroducethedietofaspecialworm.

C.Topresentawaytobreakdownplastics.

D.Toproposenewmeanstokeepeco-balance.

D

PreparingCitiesforRobotCars

Thepossibilityofself-drivingrobotcarshasoftenseemedlikeafuturist'sdream,yearsawayfrommaterializingintherealworld.Well,thefutureisapparentlynow.TheCaliforniaDepartmentofMotorVehiclesbegangivingpermitsinAprilforcompaniestotesttrulyself-drivingcarsonpublicroads.Thestatealsoclearedthewayforcompaniestosellorrentoutself-drivingcars,andforcompaniestooperatedriverlesstaxiservices.California,itshouldbenoted,isn'tleadingthewayhere.Companieshavebeentestingtheirvehiclesincitiesacrossthecountry.It'shardtopredictwhen

driverlesscarswillbeeverywhereonourroads.Buthoweverlongittakes,thetechnologyhasthepotentialtochangeourtransportationsystemsandourcities,forbetterorforworse,dependingonhowthetransformationisregulated.

Whilemuchofthedebatesofarhasbeenfocusedonthesafetyofdriverlesscars(andrightfullyso),policymakersalsoshouldbetalkingabouthowself-drivingvehiclescanhelpreducetrafficjams,cutemissions(排放)andoffermoreconvenient,affordable

mobilityoptions.Thearrivalofdriverlessvehiclesisachancetomakesurethatthosevehiclesareenvironmentallyfriendlyandmoreshared.

Dowewanttocopy-orevenworsen-thetrafficoftodaywithdriverlesscars?Imagineafuturewheremostadultsownindividualself-drivingvehicles.Theytoleratelong,slowjourneystoandfromworkonpackedhighwaysbecausetheycanwork,entertainthemselvesorsleepontheride,whichencouragesurbanspread.Theytaketheirdriverlesscartoanappointmentandsettheemptyvehicletocirclethebuildingtoavoidpayingforparking.Insteadofwalkingafewblockstopickupachildorthedrycleaning,theysendtheself-drivingminibus.Theconvenienceevenleadsfewerpeopletotakepublictransport——anunwelcomesideeffectresearchershavealreadyfoundinride-hailing(叫车)services.

AstudyfromtheUniversityofCaliforniaatDavissuggestedthatreplacingpetrol-poweredprivatecarsworldwidewithelectric,self-drivingandsharedsystemscouldreducecarbonemissionsfromtransportation80%andcutthecostoftransportationinfrastructure

(基础设施)andoperations40%by2050.Feweremissionsandcheapertravelsoundprettyappealing.Thefirstcommerciallyavailabledriverlesscarswillalmostcertainlybefieldedbyride-hailingservices,consideringthecostofself-drivingtechnologyaswellasliabilityandmaintenanceissues(责任与维护问题).Butdriverlesscarownershipcouldincreaseasthepricesdropandmorepeoplebecomecomfortable withthetechnology.

???Policymakersshouldstartthinkingnowabouthowtomakesuretheappearanceofdriverlessvehiclesdoesn'textendtheworstaspectsofthecar-controlledtransportationsystemwehavetoday.Thecomingtechnologicaladvancementpresentsachanceforcitiesandstatestodeveloptransportationsystemsdesignedtomovemorepeople,and

moreaffordably.Thecarofthefutureiscoming.Wejusthavetoplanforit.

47.Accordingtotheauthor,attentionshouldbepaidtohowdriverlesscarscan__________.

A.helpdealwithtransportation-relatedproblems

B.providebetterservicestocustomers

C.causedamagetoourenvironment

D.makesomepeoplelosejobs

48.Asfordriverlesscars,whatistheauthor'smajorconcern?

A.Safety.

B.Sideeffects.

C.Affordability.

D.Management.

49.Whatdoestheunderlinedword“fielded”inParagraph4probablymean?

A.Employed.

B.Replaced.

C.Shared.

D.Reduced.

50.Whatistheauthor'sattitudetothefutureofself-drivingcars?

A.Doubtful.

B.Positive.

C.Disapproving.

D.Sympathetic

第二节(共5小题;每小题2分,共10分)

???根据短文内容,从短文后的七个选项中选出能填入空白处的最佳选项。选项中有两项为多余选项。

WhyDoWeGetAngry?

???Angerseemssimplewhenwearefeelingit,butthecausesofangerarevarious.Knowingthesecausescanmakeusexamineourbehavior,andcorrectbadhabits.Themainreasonswegetangryaretriggering(触发)events,personalitytraits(特征),andourassessmentofsituations.51?

Triggeringeventsforangeraresomanythattodescribethemallwouldtakehundredsofpages.However,herearesomeexamples:beingcutoffintraffic,adeadlineapproaching,experiencingphysicalpain,andmuchmore._52?Thereasonwhysomeoneistriggeredbysomethingandothersarenotisoftenduetoone'spersonalhistoryandpsychologicaltraits.

Eachperson.nomatterwhotheyare,haspsychologicalimbalances.Peoplewhohavepersonalitytraitsthatconncctwithcompetitivenessandlowupsettolerancearemuchmorelikelytogetangry.?53??Also,sometimespre-angerdoesnothavetodowithalastingcondition,butratheratemporarystatebeforeatriggeringeventhasoccurred.

____54??Sometimesevenroutineoccurrencesbecomesourcesofpre-anger,orangeritself.Sometimesignoranceandnegative(消极的)outlooksonsituationscancreateanger.

____55??However,angercaneasilyturnviolent,anditisbesttoknowthereasonsforangertoappearinordertopreventitspresence.Withthesemainreasonsinmind,wecanevaluateourlevelofangerthroughoutthedayandpreventcasesofoutburstsbycomprehendingthereasonsforourfeelings.

A.Ourattitudeandviewpointonsituationscancreateangerwithinusaswell.

B.Butsometypesofsituationscanhelpustogetridoftheoccurrenceofanger.

C.Angerisrarelylookeduponasabeneficialcharactertrait,andisusuallyadvisedtoreduceit.

D.Angerisaparticularlystrongfeelingandmaybepeoplethinkthattheyhavereasonstofeelangry.

E.Havingthesepersonalitytraitsimpliesthepre-angerstate,whereangerisinthebackgroundofyourmind.

F.Understandingthesereasonswillcontrolourownangerifwearewillingtoevaluateourselveswithacriticaleye.

G.Noteveryoneactsthesameinresponsetoevents,andthatiswhywhattriggersonepersonmayormaynottriggeranother.

第三部分:书面表达(共两节,35分)

第一节(15分)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,你的英国朋友Jim在给你的邮件中提到他

对中国文化感兴趣,计划明年来北京上大学。他向你咨询相关信息。请给他回邮件,内容包括:

1.表示欢迎;

2.推荐他上哪所大学;

3.建议他做哪些准备工作。

注意:1.词数不少于50;

2.开头和结尾已给出,不计入总词数。

DearJim,

___________

Yours

LiHua

(请务必将作文写在答题卡指定区域内)

第二节(20分)

假设你是红星中学高三学生李华,请根据以下四幅图的先后顺序,写一篇英

文周记,记述你们上周接待外国学生,带领他们体验中国茶文化的全过程。

注意:词数不少于60。

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